The Legacy of António Manoel de Vilhena

António Manoel de Vilhena, a Portuguese nobleman and military leader, left a remarkable impact on the Mediterranean island of Malta during his time as Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller. His rule, which lasted from 1722 to 1736, was marked by noteworthy accomplishments in many aspects of Maltese society, ranging from fortifications and infrastructure to culture and education. In addition to his historic reign, Vilhena’s personal life and legacy give unique insights into the man behind the title.

António Manoel de Vilhena was born on May 28, 1663, in Lisbon, Portugal, into a prominent noble family. His father was a military leader and diplomat of great status. Vilhena shown early military promise and was drafted into the Army, where he was acclaimed for his leadership and strategic talents. In 1722, Vilhena replaced Italian Marc’Antonio Zondadari as 66th Grand Master of the Order of St. John, often known as the Knights Hospitaller. This appointment marked a watershed event in Malta’s history, since Vilhena’s leadership would have a significant influence on the island’s fate.

During Vilhena’s rule, he prioritised increasing Malta’s defensive capabilities in order to defend against potential Ottoman Empire attacks and other maritime threats. One of his most notable achievements was the construction of Fort Manoel, which was named after him and guarded

the entrance to Valletta’s Marsamxett Harbour. Vilhena also strengthened various other defences, including the famed Fort St Elmo, and worked extensively on other bastions and walls. His deeds built Malta into a formidable Mediterranean fortress, deterring potential assaults and cementing the island’s strategic importance.


Vilhena’s rule was notable not just for his military prowess, but also for his encouragement of culture and the arts. He backed a spate of artistic and architectural projects that boosted Malta’s cultural sector. Vilhena also supported the building and refurbishment of churches, which contributed to the island’s religious history. Vilhena recognised the value of education and welfare and established a number of schools, hospitals, and charitable agencies across Malta. These projects aimed to improve the well-being of the local community and boost intellectual progress.


In addition to his political and military achievements, António Manoel de Vilhena had a difficult personal life. Despite his commitment to his duties as Grand Master, he was known to live a lavish lifestyle, constantly overspending, and accruing massive debts. Nonetheless, Vilhena’s reign was notable for its good balance of military and cultural achievements, producing a legacy that has survived to the present day.


Apart from his public image as a brilliant military commander and Grand Master, Vilhena was known for his love of the arts and literature, which led him to build a library in Valletta’s Grandmaster’s Palace. Vilhena’s intellectual and cultural interests were reflected in this library’s amazing collection of books, manuscripts, and ancient texts.


In terms of romance, Vilhena had a tumultuous love life. He had relationships with a number of women, and his affairs were regularly the subject of gossip and scandal. The Grand Master fell in love with a French noblewoman whose beauty and elegance enchanted him. Given their social class discrepancies, society frowned upon their ardent romance. Despite these problems, Vilhena’s relationships added to the complexities of his leadership.

António Manoel de Vilhena’s influence stretches well beyond his term as Grand Master. His commissioned fortifications and architectural marvels provide witness to his strategic acumen and creative sensibilities. His assistance was crucial in the establishment of Malta’s cultural and intellectual legacy.

Furthermore, his humanitarian activities established a precedent for future Grand Masters, maintaining a charitable heritage within the Order of St. John. The Verdala Palace, one of Vilhena’s best achievements in terms of embellishment following the work of Grand Master Hugues Loubenx de Verdalle in 1586, is still an architectural wonder and a symbol of his cultural patronage. It is still used as the President of Malta’s holiday residence, reflecting its long-term significance.

Vilhena’s administration ended in 1736, when he died at the age of 73, having served as Grand Master for fourteen years. His ashes were interred in Valletta’s St. John’s Co-Cathedral, a hallowed location for the Knights Hospitaller. António Manoel de Vilhena’s reign in Malta was one of immense expansion and progress, and he left a lasting legacy. His strategic fortifications, cultural patronage, and emphasis on education and welfare have endured, making him one of Malta’s most prominent Grand Masters.